In the last 15 years, the team has worked on stress responses. Stress means “unbalanced” and for a bacterium, to live under stress is (almost) a routine way of living. Most bacteria are constantly exposed to fluctuating environments and what we are interested in is how they sense, react and adapt to get back to homeostasis. Our research has dealt with general basic processes, all controlled by ubiquitous and conserved molecular devices (respiration, iron and Fe-S biology, protein oxidation and repair, antibiotic resistance) using E. coli as a model or Salmonella, a human pathogen. Recent project are orientated towards understanding antibiotic mode of action and how this could eventually help in fighting against resistance.